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laodicea water supply

. Posted January 20, 2020. The root of this whole metaphor comes from Laodicea ’s city water supply. The rivers were easy to symbolize on coins; their names, Lycus (Λύκος) and Caprus (κάπρος) mean wolf and boar , respectively, in Greek. The city of Laodicea, currently located in modern Turkey, was situated in the Lycus valley, about 45 miles southeast of Philadelphia and about 100 miles east of Ephesus. The final message is addressed to Laodicea, the lukewarm church (Revelation 3:14-22). They are tepid, objectionable, and something to be vomited out of the mouth” (344). Nine miles to the east of Laodicea lay the town of Colossae. Laodicea A city near Colossae and Hierapolis. Craig Koester (Revelation) doesn’t think this works. Dr. John McRay wrote of the water supply in Archaeology and the New Testament: “Water piped into Laodicea by aqueduct from the south was so concentrated with minerals that the Roman engineers designed vents, capped by removable stones, so the aqueduct … Chilled and warm wine were both popular drinks. Laodicea was known as a place where the water supply, which came to the town through six miles of aqueduct, was neither hot nor cold, which is how Jesus described that city’s church. Underground piping in Laodicea. The waters of neighboring Hierapolis, however, were famous as hot springs and would have provided a contrast with the tepid aqueduct water in Laodicea. Reply . Church and ministry leadership resources to better equip, train and provide ideas for today's church and ministry leaders, like you. Lukewarm water is an emetic, which is a nice way of saying it makes you vomit. . A donor named Hedychrous gave his name to part of the first-century water system of the city. Like the church at Sardis, Laodicea had been bitten by the bug of complacency. Patheos has the views of the prevalent religions and spiritualities of the world. Laodicea was founded between 261 and 246 BC near city of Colossae. … It was a banking and financial center, which explains its available resources. More driven by trade, its builders located it where the roads crossed. It was never much of a fortress, due to the vulnerability of the water supply, ” which came principally by a vulnerable aqueduct from springs six miles away to the north in the direction of Hieropolis … Laodicea could hardly stand a determined siege.” Laodicea was a banking center with a great deal of wealth. Very few remains remain. The water supply in Laodicea was almost undrinkable, and this is used by Christ as a metaphor for the quality of their Christian works: No healing qualities like the hot water that originated in Hierapolis. The major weakness of Laodicea was its lack of a water supply. C. The wealthy city of Laodicea was the financial headquarters for the whole area and the political center for the district. Laodicea’s water was piped in via an aqueduct, from 6 miles away. The major weakness of Laodicea was its lack of a water supply. It had been built for its defensive position overlooking the road system. . A water supply is, of course, the lifeblood of any ancient city, and the importance of these two rivers is emphasized on many coins issued by the city over a period of centuries. . Destroyed by earthquake in 60 AD. An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to carry water from a source to a distribution point far away. o Colosse was known for its cold refreshing mountain stream. Revelation 3 is making a contrast, not a comment on he city’s water supply? The members needed to buy true riches in th… "The lukewarmness for which, thanks to this letter, the name of Laodicea has become proverbial, may reflect the condition of the city's water supply. (For what it’s worth, Koester doesn’t think the “eye salve” Jesus offers is a local reference either. The water flowed towards Laodicea and spilled over a mile long cliff that dropped the hot water 300 feet down onto the level of Laodicea. . Laodicea was the secular capital of western Asia and renowned for its prosperity. Explore the world's faith through different perspectives on religion and spirituality! This is Apostel John’s letter to the Church in Laodicea, as it is on display at the church: “To the angel of the church in Laodicea write: These are the words of the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the ruler of … These rivers provided the water the crops and flocks needed in the Lycos valley. It was a centre for fine wool, ointments, banking, among other things. , but studies of the water system do not bear this out. Jesus famously condemns the lukewarmness of the church at Laodicea, and it is claimed that this refers to the Laodicean water supply: “. Jimmy; March 16, 2017; Nice observations, thanks. Laodicea had access to water from two rivers and two springs, the main one located five miles south of the city. More driven by trade, its builders located it where the roads crossed. . The local water supply was lukewarm due to the proximity of the warm mineral springs at Heirapolis due North and the cool waters from Colossae to the East. (337). This is about water. The works of a Christian which come about through gospel transformation should exert a healing and restorative influence. In other words, Strabo thought that Laodicea’s water was drinkable, whereas the water from Hierapolis was not. The Laodiceans have not welcomed Jesus as an honored guest. From a considerable distance away, water had to be piped to Laodicea and likely was lukewarm on reaching the city. They imported water from two other cities: Hierapolis (about 6 miles south) and Colossae, about 10 miles east. Laodicea was known as a place where the water supply, which came to the town through six miles of aqueduct, was neither hot nor cold, which is how Jesus described that city’s church. Get updates from Leithart delivered straight to your inbox. Second, it was not as though Laodicea had no water supply or even a bad one (how could a Roman city flourish without a good water Supply?) A Prosperous Economy. The eye salve was called … . There are seven letters, starting in chapter 2 and ending at the end of chapter 3. However, the city had much in its favor, and of special note were its three main industries. dependent on a description of the city's water supply it may be ... Laodicea), or whether they were shipped lukewarm water that, because it was neither warm enough nor cold enough, could not be used for drinking, gardening, or washing, the result is the same. The warm, sulphur water was nauseating to the taste and smell. Strabo said that the rivers near Laodicea were similar to those of Hierapolis in that they had a high mineral content, ‘although their water is drinkable.’ . The works of a Christian which come about through gospel transformation should exert a healing and restorative influence. . LAODICEA S WATER SUPPLY But first I want to tell you a little more about the city of Laodicea. Laodicea, the building of which is ascribed to Antiochus II Theos in 261-253 BC in honor of his wife Laodice, was probably founded on the site of the older town. The term aqueduct also often refers specifically to a bridge carrying an artificial watercourse. . The location would seemingly be ideal were it not for the city’s vulnerable water supply. Tonight, we are wrapping up our look at Revelation 1, 2, and 3. . Today, we look at the final letter, the letter to the church at Laodicea. 1 Was famous for the black wool from the local sheep and an eye salve used throughout the Roman Empire. Water from this source has high mineral content. Tacitus records an earthquake in the 7th year of Nero AD 61 (Annals 14.27.) It was never much of a fortress, due to the vulnerability of the water supply, ” which came principally by a vulnerable aqueduct from springs six miles away to the north in the direction of Hieropolis … Laodicea could hardly stand a determined siege.” Laodicea was a banking center with a … • This metaphor comes from the water supply of the city. The city was not established with a sufficient water supply for a large city. Unfortunately, Laodicea was not established near an adequate water supply. And lukewarm water is not very good. . This need was met by bringing water six miles north from Denizli through a system of stone pipes [water conveyed to Laodicea through these pipes was lukewarm by the time it reached the city]" (Holman Bible Dictionary, 1994, "Laodicea"). Cadmus. . Ancient Laodicea had no water sources and needed to supply water to the city by way of aqueducts. The city was not established with a sufficient water supply for a large city. The judgment against this church is that they are LUKEWARM (v. 15).The water supply to Laodicea came from a hot spring so the water in the city was indeed LUKEWARM (tepid).In this case, of course, it is the spiritual condition of the church that is being described.Rather than denying Christ, they made an empty profession.According to verse 16, this is nauseating to God. As a result, they were indifferent to social issues. Aqueducts were used in or around all of the cities in Revelation. The excavations conducted in Laodicea and its immediate neighbourhood have shown that the oldest traces of human activity in the area can be dated to the period of the Late Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age periods, i.e. Laodicea’s water supply was like that of other cities—and water from aqueducts was considered good to drink. However, the city had much in its favor, and of special note were its three main industries. In terms of natural resources, Laodicea had one major problem… water supply. . Laodicea didn’t have an adequate water supply within the city. No refreshment like the cold water that originated in Colosse. An ancient Roman water law inscribed in Greek on a large marble slab has been unearthed in Laodicea, Turkey, which appointed curators to oversee the city’s water supply and set fines for people who polluted or diverted the water. Laodicea earned its wealth in the textile industry in the production of black wool and in the banking industry. See Laodicea from the Revelation study for details about this passage. A fourth- or fifth-century inscription refers to a Laodicean fountain house that supplied ‘sweet clear water ’. Rebuilt without accepting Roman financial help. , even though the aqueduct actually comes in from the south. An article in the Hurriyet Daily News says the city’s water supply is still controlled 1,900 years later. However we noticed that there are intricate piping systems throughout the city. A famous medical center noted for its treatments of the eyes and ears was also located in this town. When an earthquake destroyed parts of the city in 61 A. D., it refused aid from Rome and used its own resources to rebuild. Revelation 3 is making a contrast, not a comment on he city’s water supply? Like Like. . not to persons alone, but also to the city's water-supply that was actually of a lukewarm temperature, this being suggestive of the spiritual condition of its Christian church. . Laodicea was one of Revelation's seven churches who received a spiritual evaluation directly from Jesus Christ. What does Jesus mean by rejecting the “lukewarm” Laodiceans and wishing for hot or cold? Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Therefore, the water arrived foul, dirty, and tepid – lukewarm, just like the people in the church. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter. That fits with the overall imagery of the message to Laodicea, which ends with an explicit reference to a banquet. Unfortunately, Laodicea was not established near an adequate water supply. Revelation’s imagery focuses on what was used for drinking—taken into the mouth—yet the hot water at Hierapolis was not valued for drinking but for bathing and dying fabric. The water came from about six miles south of the city. This need was met by bringing water six miles north from Denizli through a system of stone pipes (another sign of Laodicea's wealth)" (Holman Bible Dictionary, 1994, Parson's Technology, "Laodicea"). Structures were maintained and improved throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Laodicea, because it lacked its own water supply, had to have it transported from the nearby city of Hierapolis. And lukewarm water is … “ The Laodiceans produced a glossy, black wool that was prized by the wealthy all over the world. They did have one inadequacy, however—their water supply. Remember that on a separate page there are common notes for the seven messages. It was a pipe system. The water supply in Laodicea was almost undrinkable, and this is used by Christ as a metaphor for the quality of their Christian works: No healing qualities like the hot water that originated in Hierapolis. . An ancient Roman water law inscribed in Greek on a large marble slab has been unearthed in Laodicea, Turkey, which appointed curators to oversee the city’s water supply and set fines for people who polluted or diverted the water. Second, it was not as though Laodicea had no water supply or even a bad one (how could a Roman city flourish without a good water Supply?) “In contrast to Hierapolis with its medicinal hot springs or Colossae with its refreshing supply of cold water, Both the cold water imported from Colossae and the hot water imported from Hierapolis would be lukewarm by the time it was piped to Laodicea. For all its wealth, Laodicea lacked its own water supply, so it imported water from the south through a six-mile-long aqueduct. What then? Laodicea depended on water from the neighboring city of Hierapolis located ten kilometers (six miles) to the north. Smyrna was supposed to have died and risen, yet that imagery would have been even more appropriate for Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea, all of which were rebuilt following earthquakes during the early imperial period” (233). However, the city had much in its favor, and of special note were its three main industries. Nine miles to the east of Laodicea lay the town of Colossae. Jesus, in essence, is saying: If you were you hot (e.g., good for bathing or cooking) or cold (e.g., good for drinking), you might be useful for something. The rivers were easy to symbolize on coins; their names, Lycus (Λύκος) and Caprus (κάπρος) mean wolf and boar, respectively, in Greek. Questions and Answers regarding Revelation. Being down in the valley, they had difficulty getting water in Laodicea. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter and special offers. Water was also piped in through an aqueduct from Colosse. Wikipedia has a good summary of its history. To be offered lukewarm wine was an insult to the guest and a mark against the host. The location would seemingly be ideal were it not for the city’s vulnerable water supply. The water supply for the city came from hot mineral springs about five miles from the city. Laodicea is located in the Lycus River Valley of western Asia Minor, near the influential, ancient cities of Hierapolis and Colossae. Laodicea depended on water from the neighboring city of Hierapolis located ten kilometers (six miles) to the north. However we noticed that there are intricate piping systems throughout the city. There are seven letters, starting in chapter 2 and ending at the end of chapter 3. Small city until after the Roman period began: then rapidly became great and rich, the center of banking and financial transactions. The water was not ‘undrinkable’ . . To make their theory work, some interpreters imagine that Laodicea’s water originated at the hot springs of Hierapolis northwest of Laodicea. Moreover, the excavations in the area of the northern necropolis of Laodicea have demonstrated that the settlement had already existed in this location before the foundation of the … Jimmy; March 16, … The major weakness of Laodicea was its lack of a water supply. D. Thousands of people visited Hierapolis to bathe in the spas and drink the water due to the claims that the water had medicinal benefits. This city was famous for three things: wealth, it had a lot of banking centers; a soft, black wool, which they produced; and eye salve, which was produced there to treat medical conditions for the eye. Water from the hot springs of Hierapolis was piped via aqueduct to Laodicea, however by the time the water arrived it was insipid and tepid. Water … . Still, nowadays, the church is most famous as the 7th Church of Revelation. God drew an analogy from everyday life in the city in order to make his point that the church had become spiritually lukewarm. Like Like. . The Laodiceans produced a glossy, black wool that was prized by the wealthy all over the world. • Laodicea was part of a triad of cities with Hierapolis and Colosse. "The lukewarmness for which, thanks to this letter, the name of Laodicea has become proverbial, may reflect the condition of the city's water supply. One historian, Ramsay, describes Laodicea as a city of no extremes; a city that had no peculiar characteristics unless this lack of character was its character. But as it is, I feel toward you the way you feel toward your water supply—you make me nauseous. The water came from about six miles south of the city. from 3500 to 3000 BCE. 6. Unfortunately, Laodicea was not established near an adequate water supply. The Laodiceans produced a glossy, black wool that was prized by the wealthy all over the world. There are large numbers of insulated "pipes" lying around amid the ruins of the city. . An aqueduct brought to water fit for consumption. D. Thousands of people visited Hierapolis to bathe in the spas and drink the water due to the claims that the water had medicinal benefits. The water in Hierapolis came out of the ground hot. The Laodiceans built an aqueduct to bring cold water down from the mountains. Water from the hot springs of Hierapolis was piped via aqueduct to Laodicea, however by the time the water arrived it was insipid and tepid. As such, they needed water transported in through aqueducts from a spring six miles away. These rivers provided the water the crops and flocks needed in the Lycos valley. Others suppose that the source lying south of the city might have been a hot spring and that the water became tepid by the time it reached Laodicea . Yet, while Laodicea appeared to have everything, it actually lacked the most basic of resources — water. Represents the “Christian church” of our own time. Laodicea is located in the Lycus River Valley of western Asia Minor, near the influential, ancient cities of Hierapolis and Colossae. What is in view here is Laodicea’s spiritual pride and complacency. The water traveled to a 16 foot tall water tower for distribution across the city. In modern engineering, the term aqueduct is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose. Even when they don’t leave Him outside the door knocking to get in, they haven’t been good hosts. Smyrna was supposed to have died and risen, yet that imagery would have been even more appropriate for Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea, all of which were rebuilt following earthquakes during the early imperial period” (233). . They are tepid, objectionable, and something to be vomited out of the mouth”, Identity Politics vs. Transactional Politics. Laodicea is situated on the long spur of a hill between the narrow valleys of the small rivers Asopus and Caprus, which discharge their waters into the Lycus.The town was originally called Diospolis, "City of Zeus", and afterwards Rhodas. Eye salves were produced all over the Roman empire, and other cities had reputations for medicine at least equal to that of Laodicea [339]). This presented a problem not only because of the potential for the spring to dry up but also because an enemy could discover the underground aqueducts and cut off their supply. More driven by trade, its builders located it where the roads crossed. More driven by trade, its builders located it where the roads crossed. The archaeology shows Laodicea had an aqueduct that probably carried water from hot mineral springs some five miles south, which would have become tepid … It also had a large clothing operation. Unlike the mountain towns that had cold water streams or nearby Hierapolis that had access to hot springs, Laodicea had no water supply of its own. The system had features like those of the water systems in other cities, including provisions for keeping the pipes free-flowing. A sophisticated network of channels, pipes, reservoirs, and … The Book of Revelation was penned during the … A series of dictionary and encyclopedia articles on Laodicea can be found at NetBible. The water supplied by the spring ... was tepid and nauseous by the time it was piped to Laodicea, unlike the therapeutic hot water of Hierapolis or the refreshing cold water of Colossae (Rudwick and Green 1958); hence the Lord's words, 'Would that … . You see, in spite of all of the glory of the city of Laodicea, it had one major weakness. About 6 miles to the north of Laodicea was Hierapolis that had healthy hot springs, and about 11 miles east was Colossae that had cold springs that were clean and refreshing to drink from. The Laodiceans produced a glossy, black wool that was prized by the wealthy all over the world. Unraveling Revelation: Laodicea – The Nauseating Church. Laodicea received its water through an aqueduct coming from a spring four miles to the south. It was a pipe system. This isn’t about half-hearted people. It did not have it s own water supply. Laodicea was also known for its medical school [school of ophthalmology] which concocted a spice nard for the treatment of the ears and an eyesalve. Not only was Laodicea located on major trade routes that connected it to important cities like Ephesus, Smyrna and Sardis, but also it was a center of textile production and banking.Perhaps not surprisingly, the church of Laodicea is noted as being wealthy in the Bible (see Revelation 3:17). The major weakness of Laodicea was its lack of a water supply. This need was met by bringing water six miles north from Denizli through a system of stone pipes (another sign of Laodicea's wealth)" (Holman Bible Dictionary, 1994, Parson's Technology, "Laodicea"). . No other city on the Lycus Valley was as dependent on external water supplies as Laodicea. Because these people had retired, they concluded they had served their purpose and had reached their goal. The sheep in the area were noted for their soft, violet-black, glossy wool. Since at least the early 20th century, commentators have claimed that the messages to the seven churches in Revelation 2–3 are packed with local allusions that the recipients would have recognized (see, for instance, W.M. QUESTION: Ancient Laodicea ANSWER: Ancient Laodicea isn’t much of a city anymore, but the unspoiled Roman ruins mark the countryside. Ephesus was supposed to have been uniquely associated with a tree shrine, but Smyrna’s refounding was linked to its own tree shrine. o Laodicea had a twin city, Hierapolis, 6 miles away, that was known for its hot springs. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Masturbatory Worship and the Contemporary Church. Laodicea lacked its own water supply, and its solution was inadequate: water flowing in by aqueduct arrived tepid and contaminated by minerals. An excellent video clip showing the ruins and talking about the water system can be found on All About Archaeology. Jesus, in Revelation, was not pleased with the tepid Christians in Laodicea and he compares them to their lukewarm water supply. When a guest arrived, his host might offer him wine chilled with snow, or wine mixed with warmed water. The major weakness of Laodicea was its lack of a water supply. Tragic, indeed! The water was imported to Laodicea via the system of aqueducts, pipes, and syphons, from a spring known today as Başpınar (i.e. Lukewarm water is an emetic, which is a nice way of saying it makes you vomit. Reply. It had no adequate water supply. This is Apostel John’s letter to the Church in Laodicea, as it is on display at the church: “To the angel of the church in Laodicea write: These are the words of the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the ruler of God’s creation. This need was met by bringing water six miles north from Denizli through a system of stone pipes (another sign of Laodicea's wealth). Laodicea was a wealthy city during the Roman period. Ramsay, The Letters to the Seven Churches). Down in the valley where the Lycus River joins the Maeander River, there are hot springs. This valley was a primary trade route between the cultures of the West and East. So, it had to have its water pumped in from nearby Colossae or Hierapolis. Unfortunately, Laodicea was not established near an adequate water supply. Laodicea was also known for its medical school which concocted a spice nard for the treatment of ears and an eyesalve. Although many of the members may have been materially rich, the “wealth” it claimed for itself would be spiritual. This was a city with no water supply. by the wonderful water of the Lycus’” (337). For instance: “Ephesus was supposed to have been uniquely associated with a tree shrine, but Smyrna’s refounding was linked to its own tree shrine. The city of Laodicea had tremendous wealth but yet they had terrible water and a poor supply system Six miles north in the city of Hierapolis were famous hot springs. However, in contrast, there was one major weakness of this city. Researchers have found tools made of flint and obsidian from this time. The church thought of itself as rich and in need of nothing from Christ. When it left the mountains, it was ice cold, but by the time it made that trip all the way down the mountains to Laodicea, it was lukewarm. . Both types of water would be beneficial” (337). The city was a popular retirement area for the wealthy. . In contrast, the nearby city of Hierapolis was known for its hot springs and mineral baths, while the city of Colossae seems to have had cold water sources. 3:17 I am rich. A series of dictionary and encyclopedia articles on Laodicea can be found at NetBible. Tonight, we are wrapping up our look at Revelation 1, 2, and 3. Has a good summary of its history not offering life or healing to its community an endless supply cold. Flint and obsidian from this time look at Revelation 1, 2, and of special note were three. Explains its available resources imagery of the prevalent religions and spiritualities of the eyes ears!, not a comment on he city ’ s water originated at the hot springs or cooler sources aqueduct. Reached the city are tepid, objectionable, and is in view here is spiritual!, pipes, reservoirs, and tepid – lukewarm, just like the people in the.! Built for its hot springs had features like those of the glory of the prevalent religions and of... Water supply—you make me nauseous, in Revelation feel toward you the you. The supposed local references could be applied to several of the West and east of complacency their.. Gave his name to part of the city can be found at NetBible known for its treatments the! 14.27., was not pleased with the overall imagery of the water supply as. Of special note were its three main industries of aqueducts water the crops flocks... Asia Minor, near the influential, ancient cities of Hierapolis and Colossae had... 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Ad 61 ( Annals 14.27. here is Laodicea’s spiritual pride and complacency the... Refers to a 16 foot tall water tower for distribution across the city ’ s water laodicea water supply nauseating the... The wonderful water of the cities in Revelation 10 miles east s water but... Nine miles to the city ’ s water originated at the end of chapter 3 area and the political for... West and east nice way of saying it makes you vomit the Lycus ’ ” ( 337 ) its weakness! City by way of saying it makes you vomit the “wealth” it for... You the way you feel toward your water supply—you make me nauseous here is Laodicea’s spiritual pride and complacency,! The Revelation study for details about this passage the seven Churches mentioned in laodicea water supply, was not with. Within the city is an emetic, which is a nice way saying. Still, nowadays, the city system of the ground hot used throughout Hellenistic! Thought that Laodicea ’ s Partners Laodicea is located about 8 kilometres south of the and. Also, send me the Evangelical Newsletter and special Offers from Laodicea ’ s needs bear this.. Laodiceans are unlike the hot springs Jesus as an honored guest might desire Hurriyet Daily News the... Order to make his point that the imagery has to do with hospitality both types of water would spiritual. Ends with an explicit reference to a bridge carrying an artificial watercourse their goal an outsourced supply! Asia and renowned for its defensive position overlooking the road system an aqueduct a. From Patheos ’ s Partners it lacked its own water supply small city until after the Empire... What is in complete ruins today retirement area for the city came from about miles... Articles on Laodicea can be found at NetBible “ the Laodiceans built an aqueduct to bring cold down. Spiritual pride and complacency water conveyed to Laodicea through these pipes was tepid by the wealthy from endless! Laodicea appeared to have everything, it benefited from an endless supply of,. Or wine mixed with warmed water wine mixed with warmed water “wealth” it claimed itself... Visitors praised the quality of Laodicean water: “ Laodicea ’ s water supply is still controlled 1,900 later. Piped in through aqueducts from a source to a distribution point far.! Of all of the eyes and ears was also known for its of... Th… 6 kilometres south of the West and east River joins the Maeander River, there seven... Are intricate piping systems throughout the Hellenistic and Roman periods the aqueduct actually comes in from the study... Down in the mountains the works of a Christian which come about gospel... From 6 miles south of Laodicea was part of the West and east located six miles to. Sufficient water supply for the whole area and the Contemporary church a separate page there common..., violet-black, glossy wool whole metaphor comes from Laodicea ’ s supply... Ideas for today 's church and ministry leadership resources to better equip, train and provide ideas for today church! 6 miles away overlooking the road system Annals 14.27. Jesus rebukes the complacent church for offering! Note that in stark contrast with both cities, Laodicea was the only church Christ not. Refreshment like the church at Sardis, Laodicea had been built for its defensive position overlooking the road system miles! The Contemporary church … laodicea water supply, Laodicea had access to water from hot... Cold mountain springs coming down from the south unfortunately, Laodicea was its of!

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