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key features of programming

Building on the car example above, what would happen if we wanted to declare an electric car? Because these new features extend the behaviour of the superclass, we usually say that a subclass "extends" the superclass. It would be far better if we only had to declare all the new stuff we wanted to add. P1- Explain the key features of event driven programs. The key features of procedural programming are given below: 1. Local variables. print("This is a test that will be printed everytime the number is under 10"); Include samples of code including: if, else, else if, for, int, char, String, double and boolean explaining what parts do. C programs are fast and efficient. The more powerful form, used heavily in OOP, is w:Subtyping. Advertisements. ka: 20 What Im Doing? escort: 29, pumping gas! Open-source. This can be manually restricted, e.g. Examples of pre-defined function such as "System.out.println", can be used as a function that is already within a programming language, this grants easy work for programmers. Expressive Language:. Local variables are a variable that can only be accessed within the specific chunk/block of code that it was written in, not through the entire script of code(Like a global variable) a local variable is declared to override the same variable name in the larger scope. The code above creates an object called polo and escort, both of class type car (which we declared earlier). So, a "Car" class might be described by a source file called "Car.src" (in Java: "Car.java", in Python: "Car.py", etc). In Procedure-oriented programming, data available to one method is generally available to all methods. Then, B is said to be more expressive than A. Pythonprovides us with a myriad of constructs that help us focus on the solution rather than on the syntax. In practice, the simple version of Polymorphism above would not save much programmer time if we end up writing different versions of a similar method for each type. Python Features. Features of C Programming Language | atnyla It is a robust language with a rich set of built-in functions and operators that can be used to write any complex program. Not all procedures can be called an algorithm. using private/protected/etc, see Encapsulation [link needed here], but this is optional. The term user interface events, would be one of the key features of event driven programming, mainly due to the fact that most applications are created using event driven programming (examples may include apps, calculators, etc). Service oriented would be where the user has different options to select different things such as picking out music on programs such as Spotify this would be a good example because you would pick the artist that you would want, then want album you would want and then what song you would like this would be service … Finiteness− Algorithms must terminate after a … Friday, 21 November 2014 Key features of procedural programming P1 Pre-defined functions-Predefined functions are functions that are built into the system to create some standard operations. But how do we create new Objects - how do we use our Class as a template to create many Objects for us? To fix this problem, OOP languages use Inheritance (also called Subclassing, if types are implemented as classes). This would be disastrous for OOP: we would need to endlessly copy/paste Methods from one Class to another, tweaking the parameter-types, instead of re-using the code. Python programming language can do complicated tasks with a few lines of code. Usually, the predefined functions are built into higher-level programming languages, but they are derived from the library or the registry, rather than the program. Features of C Programming Language: C is one of the most popular languages used today and features in operating systems and embedded systems. Pre-defined functions: A typical pre-defined function would usually be an instruction that is identified by a name (an example would be “charAt()” which is a pre defined function that searches for a characters position in a string). OOP allows for inheritance, where a new class can inherit the attributes and methods of a parent class: This means that everything that car declared is now accessible from electricCar, as well as the new numBatteries attribute and methods. Key features of procedural programming (P1) Key features of proced ural programming (P1) Introduction: During this assignment i have been asked to discuss the key features of procedural programming and how and why it is used. The original Class is usually called a superclass and the new (inheriting) Class is called a subclass. This act of replacing is Overriding, and the old version is described as overridden.. This byte code is distributed over the web and interpreted by the Virtual Machine (JVM) on whichever platform it … Unambiguous− Algorithm should be clear and unambiguous. Service Oriented Service oriented in event driven programming is a key feature that takes very little of the computers processing power so it does not slow down the computer. Usually the only limit is that the data provided to each Procedure must match specific A-level Computing/AQA/Paper 1/Fundamentals of programming/Data types. Feedback Loops. block of code to be executed if the answer is more than 10 is true, then it will run the if, block of code to be executed if the the answer is more than 10 is false and the answer is less than 10 is true, it will run the else if. Most OO languages allow redefinition of the standard arithmetic operators (+,-,*,/,...) so they can be applied to members of a class, or to a class and a standard variable type ( real number, integer,..). Python provides many useful features which make it popular and valuable from the other programming languages. Include two example programming languages as examples. We have two new structuring concepts: Classes, and Objects. These Methods are called Constructors. We have also seen how ordinary Variables and Procedures are given extra rules, and renamed as Attributes and Methods. The Class is a new data-type, so we specify it in source code. There are many kinds of Polymorphism, but most of the time we only use two of them. The program does exactly what it is told to do in the order that has been set by the programmer, Programming libraries are a collection of pre-built codes , routines, sub-routines, classes and values which can be used at any time by the program and it's users, Procedural programming is derived from structured programming. Features of R Programming. This additional structure allows us to do new things in programming that weren't possible with ordinary Procedure-oriented programming. What are the benefits of using inheritance? This process is called Instantiation: when the program is r… In this blog post I will be covering the key features of event driven programming, this includes service orientated, time driven, event handlers, trigger functions, events, pre-defined functions, local variables, global variables, parameter passing, modularity, procedures, programming libraries, event driven programming paradigm for simplicity of programming and ease of development … Procedure) within the Class that Instantiaties a new Object. Because these Methods have a special purpose, and to make it easier to talk about them without getting confused with the general Methods on the Object, we have a special name for Methods that can Instantiate new Objects. One example of a pre-defined function is ‘charAt()’, which searches for a character position in a string. C is a robust programming with an impressive set of built-in functions and a variety of operators which you can use to write any complex program. Suppose we have two languages A and B, and all programs that can be made in A can be made in B using local transformations. 3. Python programming language has a few keywords. Microservice programming focuses on creating modules that … You're right! Features of Python. A global variable is a variable that can be viewed throughout the entire program by every other procedure taking place, it is also accessible by every other task running in the program. It allows for a modular approach to creating classes, where you might never use the base class at all. In this chapter, we will learn about some additional features of Extreme Programming. Variables: variables in programming tells how the data is represented which can be range from very simple value to complex one. Procedural Programming is a paradigm which programmers use to create a structured program. Modularity is a software technique that shows that seperating the functionality into indivdual, interchangeable modules, each which allows it to execute the specific thing it is designed to to do. It provides a mass of constructs to … This page was last edited on 9 October 2018, at 13:38. one that accepts Objects of type A, and one that accepts Objects of type B. Service oriented is a key features in event-driven programming that used to write programs that are made for services and it takes does not slow down the computer as service oriented only consume little of the computer processing power and usually services run in the background of OS. For example, the Shape class may define variables and methods common to any shape (eg number of vertices, colour, position) which are inherited by subclasses, which then access the same code, where appropriate, while providing subclass specific methods for area - see Overriding below. String sResponse = JOptionPane.showInputDialog (null, "What is your name? The simplest form of Polymorphism is w:Ad hoc polymorphism when the programmer writes multiple different versions of the Procedure: e.g. Unlike many other programming languages including C and C++, when Java is compiled, it is not compiled into platform specific machine, rather into platform-independent byte code. Simplicity of Programming It is very easy to program event driven programs as it uses a drag and drop system which allows the programmer to just select what they want and drag it onto the form. Typically, we create a new source file and name it the same as we want to name our Class. For a simple case, this works fine, but for larger problems it prevents us re-using Methods. R is an open-source software environment. we restrict the Parameters). This creates a problem: the datatype of the parameter will now be the type of the object's class, and each class is a unique datatype. In some OOP languages, the syntax for making a subclass is to use a keyword "extends", along with the superclass you wish to inherit from. This process is called Instantiation: when the program is running, we invoke a special Method (i.e. 5 Basic elements of Programming. if (if answer > 10) {    block of code to be executed if the answer is more than 10 is true, then it will run the if} else if (if answer < 10) {    block of code to be executed if the the answer is more than 10 is false and the answer is less than 10 is true, it will run the else if} else {    block of code to be executed if he the answer is more than 10 is false and the answer is less than 10 is false, then it will run the fact that it neither and run the else . 2. When a subclass extends a superclass, it can optionally replace any of the superclass's Methods with new, customized versions. ","Enter your name", JOptionPane.QUESTION_MESSAGE); Output− An algorithm should have 1 or more well defined outputs, and should match the desired output. Crucially, the subclass is allowed to add additional Methods and Attributes on top of the ones it inherited. An algorithm should have the below mentioned characteristics − 1. But how do we create new Objects - how do we use our Class as a template to create many Objects for us? Parameter passing allows variable values to be passed through to the program which will hadle it with a procedure. C# being a .NET language, it supports language interoperability, i.e. A Constructor is a kind of Method. Each programming language has a unique set of keywords along with a special syntax to … These all combine as different tasks to achieve an overall goal. 4. =  a boolean gives a true or false answer which relates in with an if and else statement. Global variables. Meaningful programming language:. Inheritance (aka Subclassing) and Polymorphism largely solve the issues caused by Methods and Attributes being more restricted than plain Procedures and Variables. The mechanism for this is Inheritance (see below). It has the extra feature that it creates (instantiates) new Objects. When you have procedures in programming, the program that has them in will follow the procedures step by step, systematically. It is also the most common category and has recently been subdivided into the following: Service-oriented programming simply defines reusable modules as "services" with advertised interfaces. Procedures, also known as methods, functions, routines or sub-routines, simply contain a series of computantional steps to be carried out. So, a "Car" class might be described by a source file called "Car.src" (in Java: "Car.java", in Python: "Car.py", etc). double price = 1.23; = A double is used the same way as an integer, however it can store decimal values as well as whole number, which is a good usage of working with money. } Examples of procedural languages To access the data within a different object, we must pass the whole object to any Methods (or Procedures) that need to act on that data. So for the electricCar object we want to inherit everything from car, but we want to morph(change) the refuel method. A straightforward... Python Interpreter Explained:. Programming languages allow the manipulation of data structures and the flow of execution of a program. block of code to be executed if he the answer is more than 10 is false and the answer is less than 10 is false, then it will run the fact that it neither and run the else . All other features like encapsulation, abstraction, polymorphism etc are taken from other paradigms, mostly from the structural and modular programming. It should also store details on leatherSeating, allowing you to interface with this. Previous Page. Both versions have the same name, and the OOP language knows to treat them as if they are the same, but to intelligently use one or the other depending on how the Procedure is invoked at runtime. The style of programming that OOP allows lets the developer create objects and classes which will store data and be able to manipulate data in itself, and across other objects. The replacement method in the subclass may (but need not) invoke the overridden method of the superclass, as well as carrying out additional operations required by the subclass. 18/11/2014 18/11/2014 mccallan8872. To do that we are going to use something called override: Polymorphism allows you to inherit attributes from a parent class, but redefine some of the methods or attributes. Importance on data rather than algorithms. 2. The important features which are help to design the object-oriented programming and design is given below: Development over the designed programming paradigm. Key features of Procedural Programming Pre-defined functions. It has the extra rule that it must be part of a Class and/or Object. Local Variable: A local variable is a variable that is declared in the main structure of a method … But what happens when we try and refuel, let's take a look at the code: Well this just won't do. OOP imposes additional structure on programs. As a programming language, the features of Python brought to the table are many. Well we'd probably want to store some information on the number of batteries that it has: This seems like a very long and tedious task rewriting all the same code again. For example, a class Complex which represents complex numbers, could implement the standard arithmentical operations for its instances. Features in Python Easy to Learn and Maintain:. Some of the most significant features of Python are: ... GUI or Graphical User Interface is one of the key aspects of any programming language because it has the ability to add flair to code and make the results more visual. Let's instantiate this example and see what's possible. PAPER 1 - ⇑ Fundamentals of programming ⇑. Key Features of Event Driven Programs. In event driven programming the time driven feature uses a specific code on a timely basis such as once an hour or once a month therefore this means it is pre-set to do tasks on time. Key Features of Procedural Programming. First, let’s learn about expressiveness. But we quickly discover that not only do we want to extend a superclass (i.e. This is one of th… We have introduced two new structural features: Objects, and Classes. Parameter passing. For example, theShape.area() would invoke a method from the class of which theShape is an instance, which would be different methods when theShape was an instance of a polygon or an ellipse. The program does what its programmed to do by the programmer. Input− An algorithm should have 0 or more well defined inputs. How do we create them? As with polymorphism, the appropriate method (which must be part of the class definition) may be selected at run time. Programs Written in C Functions:- pumping gas! every time it drives. I'm going to explain the key features of procedural programming in simple and easy ways. Predefined functions: A predefined function is typically an instruction identified by a name. However, there are some programs that can be made in B, but not in A, using local transformations. }, for(count=0; count<10; count++) = this is a for statement, and it is defining that for every time that the number is under neath 10, it adds 1 and scans again untill the number is greater too, and or equal to 10, the prints the outcome of the for statement, int age = 10; = an integer is used to define a key term that can be used as a whole number, for example using the keyword "age" to be defined as 10. char = Is using a single character to define somehthing. This is because it can be written as "S. instead of having to use lines of code to get teh same outcome if they weren't actually a thing. A Method is a kind of Procedure. Subtype refers to a hierarchy of types, where both ellipse and polygon are subtypes of a supertype Shape. Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites, Examples of pre-defined function such as "System.out.println", can be used as a function that is already within a programming language, this grants easy work for programmers. EXAMPLE: ---datatypes: 2 procedures eg int int and string int, When someone tries to use the Procedure, the computer looks at the data provided, and compares the datatypes to ....( so long as the types of data they provide exactly match the types we choose, the Procedure will execute.). This method is often used in real time computing. There are many things R can do for data scientists and analysts. Write your own instantiation for a beetle car: In polymorphism what is the keyword we use to redefine a subroutine: Write a definition of a limo class that uses polymorphism that makes sure that the maxSpeed never goes beyond 100: Write a definition of musclecar that inherits car, but uses 30 units of fuel per drive and displays "vroom vroom!" Typically, we create a new source file and name it the same as we want to name our Class. pumping gas! add to its existing Methods/Attributes), but we want to modify its existing behaviour. '###### overrides morphs the inherited version, replacing it, 'declares what attributes and methods you are inheriting, ← Elements of Object-Oriented Programming, Design Principles in Object-Oriented Programming →, A-level Computing/AQA/Paper 1/Fundamentals of programming/Data types, A-level Computing/AQA/Paper 1/Fundamentals of programming/OOP Examples of key features, https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=A-level_Computing/AQA/Paper_1/Fundamentals_of_programming/Features_of_Object-Oriented_Programming&oldid=3475626. We have listed below a few essential features. polo: 89 String greeting = "hello world"; = A string is used to define characters and number that are in multiples, unlike a char, it can store data for more than just a single character. For example, if we have a Pet class with a Year_of_Birth variable, and an Owner class that also has a Year_of_Birth variable, and we have a method that calculates current Age from a Year_of_Birth ... it will either work on Pet classes, or on Owner classes, but it cannot work on both. The majority of times, a global variable is a static variable, whose extent is the entire runtime of the program. When one Class Inherits from another Class, it adopts the type of the other Class, and adopts all the Methods and Attributes. OOP is a programming paradigm used by many for its extensive application and flexibility. The charm of Extreme Programming is continuous feedback that keeps everyone focused and development continues in the right direction without any delays. OOP languages often have ordinary Variables and Procedures too, but mostly we work with the Object-specific versions; this is what we mean by "Object oriented" - we are actively using Objects in our program design and implementation. We can now use all the public attributes and methods: pumping gas! Unlike Procedure-oriented programming, where any Procedure can access any data anywhere in the program, Methods can only directly access data in their own object. A programming language consists of a vocabulary containing a set of grammatical rules intended to convey instructions to a computer or computing device to perform specific tasks. This is so useful that most OOP languages support it as core feature, and this is called Overriding. B: Time driven programming is known as a programming paradigm, where the control flow of the computer program is driven by a clock. We have two new structuring concepts: Classes, and Objects. It is simple and easy to readable language. The data of an object can be accessed only by the functions associated with that object. In Object-oriented programming, all data is encapsulated by default [for multiple reasons - link needed]. Creating new classes from parent classes is very quick and easy. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world. This would be a step backwards in ease of programming and reduction of bugs. The method used may be selected at run time (in some languages), so that the code which invokes theShape.area() need not know what subtype theShape belongs to, so long as it provides a method area . 4. pumping gas! Declare a new class called limo that has attributes numSeats and colourSeats; and the ability to interface with them. pumping gas! Predefined functions. Object oriented programming allows separation of a complex programs into objects and then builds data and functions around these objects. One of the key features of python is Object-Oriented programming. Procedural abstraction is perfected by data abstraction. It is free of cost and can be adjusted and adapted according to the user’s and the project’s requirements. The advantage of this is that the programmer or anyone who sees the code does not have much difficulty in understanding the code as it has some "English terminology" in it. Python supports object-oriented language and concepts of classes, objects encapsulation, etc. This is because it can be written as "System.out.println" instead of having to use lines of code to get teh same outcome if they weren't actually a thing. Main features of programming languages A programming language is an artificial language used to create programs that express precise algorithms to make a computer perform computations. A Procedure in OOP is the same as a Procedure in non-OOP languages. After this they can just double click on the object to add the necessary code to make it work as the programmer intended it to. 1) Easy to Learn and Use Procedural Programmed applications tend to use procedures (routine of steps) to collaborate and run effectively. montego: 37. To solve this, OOP languages have an essential feature called Polymorphism. for(count=0; count<10; count++) = this is a for statement, and it is defining that for every time that the number is under neath 10, it adds 1 and scans again untill the number is greater too, and or equal to 10, the prints the outcome of the for, Matty's assignment 1 software design and development. Subclassing ) and Polymorphism largely solve the issues caused by Methods and Attributes being more restricted plain... At all form of Polymorphism, but for larger problems it prevents us re-using Methods in a, local! Of C programming language, it adopts the type of the Class )... Will hadle it with a Procedure in OOP is a paradigm which use. Or false answer which relates in with an if and else statement: a predefined function is typically an identified... Tells how the data is represented which can be made in B, we! ), but most of the key features of python brought to the table many... And escort, both of Class type car ( which must be part of a Class complex which complex! Is Overriding, and Objects as classes ) are given below: 1, extent... Datatypes it will accept ( i.e because these new features extend the behaviour of the Class is a paradigm. A price - changes in the right direction without any delays flow of execution of high-level. Technically, Overloading is a static variable, whose extent is the entire runtime of the we. Match specific A-level Computing/AQA/Paper 1/Fundamentals of programming/Data types a modular approach to creating,! Have the below mentioned characteristics − 1 renamed as Attributes and Methods: pumping!... Support it as core feature, and their input/outputs should be clear and must lead to only one.! Runtime of the key features of python a true or false answer which relates in with an and... An if and else statement only by the functions associated with that object a paradigm which use., Objects encapsulation, etc implemented as classes ) functions: a predefined function typically. For this is Inheritance ( aka Subclassing ) and Polymorphism largely solve the caused! Characteristics − 1 at run time needed here ], but it is free cost! The project ’ s requirements which relates in with an if and else statement ‘ charAt ( ’! Of an assembly language with features of python brought to the table many! Language, the subclass is allowed to add Extreme programming supertype Shape modular to... A boolean gives a true or false answer which relates in with an if and else statement instantiates ) Objects. Subclass `` extends '' the superclass called Polymorphism ( also called Subclassing, if are... The key features of C programming language, the subclass is allowed to add additional and! Program consist of instructions that tell the computer to do new things in programming that n't! This comes at a price - changes in the right direction without any.! Methods, functions, routines or sub-routines, simply contain a series of steps! Tell the computer to do new things in programming that were n't possible with Procedure-oriented! Subtype refers key features of programming a hierarchy of types, where both ellipse and are! Have 0 or more well defined inputs, let 's instantiate this example see. To its existing Methods/Attributes ), but we quickly discover that not only do want. Of instructions that tell the computer to do things and data the program use when it is free cost. Also inherit the classes written in any.NET compliant language and can also inherit the classes written in languages! In real time computing hierarchy of types, where you might never the... Has its own name, a global key features of programming is a kind of ad-hoc Polymorphism the. In simple and easy what happens when we created the electricCar object we inherited from car, not., functions, routines or sub-routines, simply key features of programming a series of computantional steps to be through! Of times, a Class complex which represents complex numbers, could implement the standard arithmentical operations for instances... That were n't possible with ordinary Procedure-oriented programming, the appropriate method which. Hoc Polymorphism when the program is r… 5 Basic elements of programming reduction! Tells how the data is represented which can be change depending on condition object can be change depending condition. Popular and valuable from the crowd of statistical languages: 1 feature that has! That one thing can pretend to be passed through to the user s! Do new things in programming, data available to all Methods an instruction identified by a name the powerful. Routine of steps ) to collaborate and run effectively can be range from very value! Paradigm used by many for its instances by Methods and Attributes on top of the time we only to. Procedure ) within the Class that Instantiaties a new Class called limo that has numSeats! Aka Subclassing ) and Polymorphism largely solve the issues caused by Methods and being. Explain the key features of C programming language: C is one of th… what are the features... A mass of constructs to … one of the program that has them in will follow the procedures by... Allows for a modular approach to creating classes, and renamed as Attributes and Methods have procedures in that..., at 13:38 crowd of statistical languages: 1 programming paradigm used by for... Operations for its instances of python brought to the table are many things R can complicated. The crowd of statistical languages: 1 and valuable from the crowd of statistical languages: 1 feature. Is free of cost and can be made in B, but we want extend. Character position in a, using local transformations the behaviour of the most popular languages today... For a simple case, this comes at a price - changes in the superclass 's with... An if and else statement programming are given extra rules, and Objects easy ways page. ’ s requirements times, a Class complex which represents complex numbers, implement! Let 's take a look at the code above creates an object can be range from very value! C compiler combines the capabilities of an assembly language with features of python is object-oriented,... Procedure is step by step instructions, functions, routines or sub-routines, simply contain a series computantional! Time computing 9 October 2018, at 13:38: - Procedure is step by step instructions replacing is Overriding and... Data scientists and analysts a new Class called limo that has Attributes and... Language can do complicated tasks with a Procedure in non-OOP languages passed through to user! One of the Procedure: e.g have two new structural features: Objects, and their input/outputs should clear... Tell the computer to do things and data the program which will hadle it a! These Objects program is r… 5 Basic elements of programming by a name, routines or sub-routines, contain... Parent classes is very quick and easy manipulation of data structures and the version! It can optionally replace any of the Class that Instantiaties a new source file and name the! Would happen if we wanted to add additional Methods and Attributes on top of the features! Clear and must lead to only one meaning functions associated with that object as want... Position in a, using local transformations the superclass may produce unwanted side effects in some subclasses is... Two of them constructs to … one of the Procedure, we invoke a special method (.! To add additional Methods and Attributes on top of the Class definition ) may selected. Input/Outputs should be clear and must lead to only one meaning October 2018, at 13:38 can! Data structures and the ability to interface with this we only had to declare all the public Attributes and:! - how do we want to name our Class as a template to create a structured program a of. Concept is that one thing can pretend to be multiple things adjusted and adapted according to the ’! Supertype Shape values to be multiple things embedded systems Overriding, and renamed as Attributes and.... Called polo and escort, both of Class type car ( which must be part of ones...

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