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© 1996 - 2021 NewsHour Productions LLC. Here’s why that’s legally questionable, How white supremacists respond when their DNA says they’re not ‘white’, at least not without a subpoena or search warrant, and involve looking up thousands of people. Nsikan Akpan is the digital science producer for PBS NewsHour and co-creator of the award-winning, NewsHour digital series ScienceScope. It was built for reuniting families, and now it is being used essentially to get families to put their members in jail.”. Here’s how it can go wrong. It was Cook’s girlfriend — 18-year-old Tanya Van Cuylenborg. Usry said police grilled him for a couple hours before asking him for a cheek swab. But in 2014, detectives were interested in Usry because of his dad’s DNA. We show matches,” Rogers said. In early 2018, investigators in California uploaded DNA from one of the Golden State Killer crime scenes to GEDmatch, an open data personal genomics database and genealogy website. A pack of Camel Lights had been stuffed down his throat. In 2018, the so-called Golden State Killer — who had terrorised the western coast of … Okay, I’ll let it go this one time,’” he says. The process begins with a DNA sample, uploaded to a database like GEDmatch. We show matches. In the Cook and Van Cuylenborg investigation, Scharf’s team surveilled Talbott for weeks until he discarded a coffee cup with his saliva, and other genetic genealogy cases investigated by their unit have involved tracking siblings. Usry was released, but he said he spent a worry-filled month before the police called to say his DNA wasn’t a match. In May, genetic genealogy got the prime-time-TV treatment in an ABC true-crime series called The Genetic Detective, starring Moore. That’s why GEDMatch was created — to serve as a meeting space for people interested in their ancestry, but who have struggled to find family members through their testing service of choice. At the International Symposium on Human Identification held last week in Palm Springs, California, genealogists were leading sessions and workshops every day. “If we’re weighing convicting someone who’s committed a terrible crime against the idea that an innocent person might have to give a blood sample, that seems like a trade-off that most people would be willing to make,” Berkman said. When Michael Usry, the filmmaker from New Orleans, was 19, he had traveled through Idaho Falls on a couple occasions around the same time as Angie Dodge’s murder — once for a Mormon mission trip and another time for a ski vacation in Utah. Genetic genealogy is now solving recent crimes, not just cold cases. Just try writing a person’s biography with only 20 hard-to-decipher letters. In June, for example, a profile showed up on FamilyTreeDNA with the description “rootless hair” from an “unknown victim.” The case turned out to come from Barbara Rae-Venter, the genealogist best known for helping investigators in the Golden State Killer case,  and its appearance on FamilyTreeDNA stirred up speculation. Police officers were uploading crime-scene DNA to genealogical databases without any formal oversight, and prominent genealogists … Thursday on the PBS NewsHour, William Brangham meets people who have taken DNA tests and as a result been inadvertently involved in murder investigations because of genetic genealogy. So few users have opted in their profiles—currently 163,000 out of 1.3 million DNA uploads—GEDmatch has become only marginally useful in many criminal cases. Law enforcement officials may be able to access DNA results you upload to the internet. In July, FamilyTreeDNA made a series of changes to law-enforcement profiles, restricting profile photos and an “about me” section. In a second case, in Fort Wayne, Ind., police used genetic genealogy to arrest and charge John Miller. GEDmatch was originally created by volunteers. If you share about 12 percent, then you’re most likely first cousins.”, CeCe Moore is one of the pioneers of using genetic genealogy for forensics. The cops swung by and he agreed to head down to the station. This single episode managed to inflame the fears of people on all sides of the law-enforcement debate. U.S.-based Parabon NanoLabs has gained international attention for its groundbreaking use of genetic genealogy to solve cold cases, including the 1987 murder of a Saanich couple on a road trip in No eyewitnesses. Hence the allure of GEDMatch. Genealogy databases are increasingly being used in criminal investigations. Berkman added that police departments need to be more transparent about when and how they’re using genetic genealogy and other DNA information to prosecute someone. Like GEDmatch, FamilyTreeDNA allows users who tested with other companies to upload their DNA profiles. “That’s how powerful genetic genealogy is in solving crimes.”. Then, another genealogy site entered the story. On an August day in Washington state, fields of crops stretch like seas until they bump up against 100-foot-high pines. Those 20 spots are in special zones called short tandem repeats — parts of the genome that don’t define a person’s health status or appearance. There are no exams and no credentials specific to forensic genealogy. Police officers were uploading crime-scene DNA to genealogical databases without any formal oversight, and prominent genealogists disagreed bitterly on how far they should be let in. Sixteen years ago, Usry’s father had been convinced to submit a cheek swab to the Sorenson Database, as part of a genealogy project in which participation was encouraged by the Mormon church. Image by PBS NewsHour. But when people mention genetic genealogy used in cases like the Golden State Killer or William Earl Talbott II, what they mean is a search that’s dependent on autosomal DNA. Genetic genealogist CeCe Moore is one of the most sought-after experts in the world. “That’s how we used to do things in the old days,” Rogers said. The instance followed a similar pattern as with FamilyTreeDNA and the FBI: A personal appeal from law enforcement to one individual running a site. Those tests reveal subtle differences in those letters — called SNPs — that can explain why people have different hair colors and health conditions. Sarah Zhang ... they proudly announced the use of the same method of tracing distant relatives through DNA a field known as genetic genealogy. Decades-old accusations—unrelated to genealogy—were dragged up to discredit vocal members. “They immediately eliminated my dad because he was too old,” Usry said. The guidelines cover a number issues: They restrict the use of genealogy to cases involving violent crimes and attempted violent crimes in which other leads have been exhausted, and require law-enforcement officials to identify themselves as such. A violation of terms of service. For Rogers, who started GEDmatch in retirement and is now 81, the questions about law enforcement have been a big headache. He is more concerned about another technique that is rising alongside of genetic genealogy called DNA phenotyping. Even though autosomal genealogy — with its 700,000 letters — offers a much more specific portrait of a person, it can still lead to false identifications. Though using DNA to help solve crimes is effective, it can also infringe on the privacy of innocent people. Law-enforcement agencies, for their part, are trying to navigate a world entirely new to them. No concrete leads. “Slow-mail a form to fill out your parents’ names, when they were born, when your siblings were born, that type of thing.”. A disclosure only after the fact. But the fact that law enforcement was actually using GEDMatch? Over the next several months, FamilyTreeDNA changed its story about how it came to work with the FBI. It marked a year since a genealogist had helped law enforcement track down the man suspected of being the notorious Golden State Killer, and in the ensuing months genealogists had helped police identify suspects in more than 40 other cases. Assuming that an average family has 2 to 3 kids, then a typical person would — statistically speaking — have nearly 200 third cousins, 950 fourth cousins and 4,700 fifth cousins. And yet, it was also a summer of controversy. That’s how the Golden State Killer and about 70 other suspects behind brutal cold cases — rapes, murders and assaults — have been caught since April 2018. Assuming that an average family has 2 to 3 kids, then a typical person would — statistically speaking — have nearly 200 third cousins, 950 fourth cousins and 4,700 fifth cousins. But when a person sends a saliva sample to 23andMe or Ancestry.com, they receive back a profile that is mostly focused on 600,000 to 700,000 letters found in those 22 autosomal chromosomes. “But when they started doing research, they saw my short film,” said Usry, who had co-produced a slasher film called “Murderabilia,” which includes the murder of a young girl. It had to create a way for users to opt out of law-enforcement searches if they wished. Using genetic genealogy, law enforcement have solved 70 murders and rape, cold cases that for decades were unsolved, FDLE officials said. Photo courtesy of James Scharf. Next month, genealogists, bioethics, and direct-to-consumer DNA companies are convening at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory’s Banbury Center, for a meeting coordinated by Yaniv Erlich, the chief scientific officer of the DNA-testing company MyHeritage, and Amy Lynn McGuire, a bioethicist at Baylor College of Medicine, to discuss the ethics of forensic genealogy. Genetic genealogy has suddenly become big in United States law enforcement. At the time, there was no DNA database anywhere in the country to compare the semen and search for a potential culprit. (The FBI declined to comment. “There are a lot of genealogists now hanging out their shingles and offering their services,” says Press. The 20-year-old had been beaten around the head and strangled with twine tied to dog collars. It was one of the most sensational revelations in criminal history. The “other thing” was Angie Dodge, a young woman who was raped and murdered in Idaho in 1996. Close relatives or even non-relatives can be accused of the crime if care is not taken with how the genetic genealogy is interpreted. On the flipside, Y-DNA refers to the Y-chromosome acquired by biological males from their fathers — so it can track paternal ancestors. “If you share about 3 percent of your DNA with someone, then you’re most likely second cousins. https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/genetic-genealogy-can-help-solve-cold-cases-it-can-also-accuse-the-wrong-person. The opposite is true. Read: The fertility doctor’s secret children. This strictly grew by word of mouth and social media,” Curtis Rogers, one of GEDMatch’s founders, told NewsHour. ABC News' all-new series, "The Genetic Detective," follows investigative genetic genealogist CeCe Moore as she uses her unique research skills to transform the face of crime solving. The uproar got Rogers to make a change he says he had been long considering—opting out every GEDmatch member by default. In June, such work led to its first conviction. In July, the first exoneration. The investigation had remained a priority for investigators over … The couple had come down from Victoria, Canada, to pick up machine parts for Cook’s dad, who owned a furnace company. He and Olson didn’t learn that their services were being used for culprits until investigators in the Golden State Killer case announced on April 25, 2018, that they had called on the website to apprehend Joseph James DeAngelo. “I wish it had never happened,” he says. Moore said it’s impossible to predict how long it will take to zero in on a potential suspect. But none of this can happen without the right DNA database. “It’s an important point to remember because DNA, too, can be misused.”. His son was then falsely accused of murder, DNA ancestry searches can now identify most white Americans. The body of his girlfriend, 18-year-old Tanya Van Cuylenborg, was found nearly 80 miles away. Investigators claim that it can guess the appearance — eye color, hair color, skin color, face shape — of a suspect or Jane Doe based purely on their DNA. Subscribe to ‘Here's the Deal,’ our politics newsletter. One day, Rogers asked Olson if the latter could put together an algorithm for matching family trees via computers, rather than doing all the manual back and forth. Genetic genealogy — in truth, any forensics dependent on DNA — can fall prey to the same human biases that plague other aspects of law enforcement. Users were also suddenly finding distant matches that seemed to come from crime-scene DNA, based on the username, profile photo, or contact information. A small study in 2018 found up to 40 percent of the SNPs identified in DNA profile might be false positives, a result mirrored by a second study published this June. Subscribe to Here’s the Deal, our politics newsletter for analysis you won’t find anywhere else. Benjamin Berkman, deputy director of bioethics at the National Human Genome Research Institute, said sibling surveillance or cases like Usry’s may just be an unfortunate inconvenience of using a powerful tool. “Tanya’s body was found mostly nude on the side of the road,” said James Scharf, who was a Snohomish County patrolman at the time. Consider all the potential consequences before you use a mail-in DNA test. In March, CEO Bennett Greenspan told Forensic Magazine that he himself did not know how long FBI had been using FamilyTreeDNA. “The community exploded. This forensic technique relies on at-home DNA tests and public databases to track down violent criminals. “They drove from Miami…There were satellite trucks out here in this little narrow street; really upset the neighborhood.”. The case remained unsolved for 32 years, until genetic genealogy emerged. Forensic genealogy is the emerging practice of utilizing genetic information from direct-to-consumer companies for identifying suspects or victims in criminal cases. 103 talking about this. Cars are rolling over the High Bridge as locals swim in the coursing stream below. The technique relies on the simple principle that, if you go back far enough in history, everyone is related, and therefore has thousands of relatives. The killer probably “parked under a bridge that he knew was a good out-of-the-way place where nobody would see the van,” Scharf told the PBS NewsHour. I don’t know,” he said. As of July, 2019, the use of this practice has led to the discovery of over 40 suspects of murder and sexual assault. Left: For the first time, a public database of DNA profiles was used to solve a … This is against GEDmatch’s terms of service, but the site has no automated way to catch these uploads. Meanwhile, FamilyTreeDNA is leaning into law-enforcement work as a business. In August, after the initial furor had settled down, Greenspan admitted to The Wall Street Journal that he had been aware of the FBI’s uploads. Everyone’s biography — DNA code or genome — is essentially the same, containing more than 3 billion letters in an order that is 99.6 to 99.8% identical. He didn’t get into this field to answer difficult questions balancing about privacy and public safety. The future of ‘genetic genealogy’ crime solving. Meanwhile, FamilyTreeDNA was trying to retrofit a website made for connecting family members to allow for sensitive, criminal investigations. After the Golden State Killer episode, they updated the terms to permit law enforcement searches in the cases of violent crime, which they defined as rapes and murders. While on a road trip in 1987, Jay Cook and Tanya Van Cuylenborg were murdered, their bodies found nearly 80 miles apart. The debate became so toxic that genealogy groups on Facebook banned any discussion of law enforcement. In most cases, the only matches will be distant cousins, but skilled genealogists are able to map out family trees by cross-referencing shared bits of DNA with public records, obituaries, and social-media profiles. In less than two years, the powerful new crime-solving tool that uploads crime scene DNA … Friendships ended. We don’t show anyone’s DNA. All Rights Reserved. We began by discussing the theory and development of Investigative Genetic Genealogy, including some ethical and legal considerations raised by this technique. When this decision became public, the backlash was so intense that GEDmatch made an abrupt policy change: All users were now by default excluded from law-enforcement searches unless they explicitly chose to opt in. “It was a shock to me,” Rogers said. GEDmatch does not offer DNA tests itself, but it allows anyone to upload results from companies such as 23andMe or Ancestry or, as it turns out, forensic labs. Verogen’s push into public crime labs with genetic genealogy may help solve more cold cases, but it raises concerns about DNA data collection. At one point, the site secretly allowed police to upload DNA from the scene of a violent assault—following a personal appeal from the detective to one of GEDmatch’s co-founders. Photo by William Brangham/ PBS NewsHour. The van was found in a parking lot nearby Van Cuylenborg’s corpse. Check your local listings for the time, and watch Part 1 here. In the genetic genealogy workshop, the search for the elusive killer results in building several genetic networks based on shared cM data, which Southard has her class plot out on traditional family tree diagrams. — Benjamin Berkman, deputy director of bioethics at the National Human Genome Research Institute. “It’s like the Wild West,” says Kaye, who believes the courts would find that using genetic genealogy for crime-solving is probably legal … “We’re sending emails to people, and it would take hours trying to figure out who the common ancestors were,” he said. Two wildly popular nonfiction TV genres — genealogy and true crime — collide in ABC News’ series “The Genetic Detective” (debuting 10 p.m. … It showed that access to DNA databases, for genealogists on criminal cases, could easily and abruptly be taken away. It’s been a fractious year and a half, but this is still a new field. Thank you. “We never advertised and promoted. “He goes, ‘Well, do you see this warrant right here? Depending on the size of the family, the process can take months and involve looking up thousands of people. “There is a case in Germany where they thought that the DNA evidence from a murder scene pointed to a certain ethnic minority, and then [law enforcement] went and harassed that population.”, After Michael Usry was cleared of any connection to Angie Dodge’s murder, he became acquainted with her mother, Carol. But genetic genealogy, which pointed to Usry, is not foolproof. This was made possible by 40-year-old DNA evidence, genetic genealogy, and current information systems technology. Figuring out the rules of engagement will take time. This DNA database was public, but only contained profiles of Y-chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA — thus, it could only trace paternal or maternal heritage. Law-enforcement investigations clearly needed to be more discreet. DGCS is devoted to inspiring and … GEDmatch’s decision to opt out all users from crime-related searches erased most of the matches for Does the nonprofit was trying to identify, and it’s still hampering the project’s work. “Genetic genealogy” has long been used by adoption researchers to help adopted children connect with their unknown biological family members. In January 2019, BuzzFeed reported that FamilyTreeDNA had quietly changed its terms of service after it began working with the FBI—unbeknownst to any of its customers. Under the High Bridge in 1987, 20-year-old Jay Cook's body was discovered. The Federal Bureau of Investigation eventually united all of those databases, in 1997, into one national network called the Combined DNA Index System, or CODIS. Genealogists have suddenly had to contend with the much higher stakes of their work, and genealogy databases have had to make up the rules as they go, scrambling to deal with backlash. Nsikan Akpan. Image by Michael Werner, WATCH: CeCe Moore explains how at-home DNA tests and genetic genealogy helped solve a 30-year-old murder. As Hunt put it during his talk in Palm Springs, “We’re writing on a blank slate.”, Prosecutors in the Golden State Killer case, which pioneered the use of forensic genealogy, best known for helping ID the suspected Golden State Killer, A Woman’s AncestryDNA Test Revealed a Medical Secret, GEDmatch has become only marginally useful, International Symposium on Human Identification. “The William Earl Talbot II case was the fastest. In criminal cases, law enforcement may also contact family members for information or additional DNA to narrow down possible hits. Was trying to retrofit a website made for connecting family members for information additional... The trail went cold for three decades leads to arrest and charge John Miller Zhang... they proudly the. Gedmatch headquarters is in time, and now it is being used in cases... 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